7805 Voltage Regulator IC Datasheet, Circuit, Pinout, and Applications

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The voltage sources in any circuit may fluctuate due to which the output voltage is not uniform. A voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant voltage. The 7805 voltage regulator, a member of the 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulators used to handle such fluctuations, is a popular voltage regulator (IC).

The xx in 78xx indicates the voltage it puts out. The 7805 provides Positive 5 volt regulated supply with provisions for adding a heat sink to the IC.

7805 Voltage Regulator IC Specifications 

  • Minimum Input voltage is 7V
  • Maximum Input Voltage is 35V
  • Current rating Ic = 1A
  • Maximum Output Voltage VMax=5.2V
  • Minimum Output Voltage VMin=4.8V

LM7805 Voltage Regulator Pinout

Below you can see the 7805 Voltage Regulator Pin Diagram.

IC 7805 Pinout
IC 7805 Pinout
Pin No.PinFunctionDescription
1INPUTInput voltage (7V-35V)In this pin of the IC positive unregulated voltage is given in the regulation.
2GROUNDGround (0V)In this pin where the ground is given. This pin is neutral for equally the input and output.
3OUTPUTRegulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V)The output of the regulated 5V is taken out at this pin of the IC regulator.
IC 7805 Pinout Voltages

As you may have noticed there is a difference between the input voltage and output voltage of the voltage regulator. This difference between the input and output voltages is released from the body of the IC in the form of heat. The greater the difference between the input and output voltages, the more heat will be generated from the casing.

If the regulator does not have a heat sink to dissipate this heat, it may get damaged. Therefore, it is advisable to keep the voltage at most 2-3 volts above the output voltage.

So, now we have 2 options. Either we design our circuit so that the input voltage going to the regulator is 2-3 volts higher than the output regulated voltage or we use a suitable heatsink which can absorb the heat efficiently.

7805 IC Heating Problem

The 7805 voltage regulator is not very efficient and has the problem of drop-out voltage. A lot of energy is wasted as heat. For this you will have to use a heatsink, so it would be better to calculate the size of the heatsink properly.

Why do we use Capacitors with 7805?

If your voltage regulator is located more than 25 cm (10 inches) away from the power supply, a capacitor is needed to filter out residual AC noise. Voltage regulators work best on clear DC signals being supplied. Bypass capacitors help reduce AC ripple.

Capacitors essentially reduce the AC noise from the ten voltage signal and allow only the DC voltage to pass into the regulator. The two capacitors are not critical and can be omitted if you are not concerned about line noise.

However, for a mobile phone charger or logic assessment, all you need is a nice clean DC line. Therefore capacitors would be beneficial as they are good at maximizing voltage regulation. The values ​​of the capacitors can also be changed slightly.

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